Pediatric solid organ transplant recipients demonstrate robust cell-mediated and humoral responses to three doses of mRNA SARS-CoV-2 vaccine

Am J Transplant. 2022 Dec;22(12):3047-3052. doi: 10.1111/ajt.17195. Epub 2022 Sep 21.

Abstract

Pediatric solid organ transplant recipients (pSOTR) often demonstrate suboptimal vaccine responses and are not included in severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) vaccine efficacy trials. This population has shown variable humoral immunity following SARS-CoV-2 vaccination, and no studies have assessed cell-mediated responses after SARS-CoV-2 vaccination in pSOTR. SARS-CoV-2-specific interferon-gamma release assay (IGRA), immunoglobulin G (IgG), and receptor-binding domain (RBD)-angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) blocking antibody (Ab) were measured in pSOTR aged 5-17 years after 2-3 doses of SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccine. In all, 33 subjects were included, with 25 tested after the second dose of mRNA vaccine (V2) and 21 tested after the third dose of mRNA vaccine (V3). Of the 19 subjects who had IgG testing after V3, 100.0% (19/19) had a positive IgG response. Of the 17 subjects who had IGRA testing after V3, 94.1% (16/17) had a positive IGRA response. RBD-ACE2 blocking antibody increased significantly from V2 to V3 (p = .007). Subjects <1 year from transplant demonstrated a significantly larger increase in RBD-ACE2 blocking Ab from V2 to V3 than did those >1 year from transplant (p = .05). SARS-CoV-2 vaccination induces humoral and cell-mediated responses in the majority of pSOTR, with improved quantitative humoral response after three doses.

Keywords: clinical research/practice; infection and infectious agents - viral: SARS-CoV-2/COVID-19; infectious disease; vaccine.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2
  • Antibodies, Viral
  • COVID-19 Vaccines
  • COVID-19* / prevention & control
  • Child
  • Humans
  • Immunoglobulin G
  • Organ Transplantation*
  • RNA, Messenger
  • SARS-CoV-2
  • Transplant Recipients
  • Vaccination
  • mRNA Vaccines

Substances

  • COVID-19 Vaccines
  • Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2
  • RNA, Messenger
  • Immunoglobulin G
  • Antibodies, Viral