Urologic Considerations in Pediatric Chronic Kidney Disease

Adv Chronic Kidney Dis. 2022 May;29(3):308-317. doi: 10.1053/j.ackd.2022.02.006.


Common causes of pediatric ESRD are distinct from those seen in the adult population. In the pediatric population, the most common are congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract (CAKUT), affecting approximately 30% of children with CKD. These structural anomalies often require coordinated care with the pediatric urology team to address voiding issues, bladder involvement, and the potential need for surgical intervention. For pediatric nephrologists and urologists, common CAKUT that are encountered include antenatal hydronephrosis, obstructive uropathies (eg, posterior urethral valves), and vesicoureteral reflux. As more pediatric patients with CAKUT, CKD, and ESRD transition to adult care, it is important for receiving adult nephrologists to understand the clinical presentation, natural history, and prognosis for these diagnoses. This review outlines the diagnosis and potential interventions for these conditions, including strategies to address bladder dysfunction that is often seen in children with CAKUT. A discussion of these management decisions (including surgical intervention) for CAKUT, which are quite common to pediatric nephrology and urology practices, may provide unique learning opportunities for adult nephrologists who lack familiarity with these pediatric conditions.

Keywords: Bladder abnormalities; Chronic kidney disease; Congenital kidney disease; Hydronephrosis; Kidney abnormalities.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Child
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Kidney Failure, Chronic* / surgery
  • Pregnancy
  • Renal Insufficiency, Chronic* / therapy
  • Urogenital Abnormalities
  • Urology*
  • Vesico-Ureteral Reflux* / complications
  • Vesico-Ureteral Reflux* / diagnosis
  • Vesico-Ureteral Reflux* / therapy

Supplementary concepts

  • Cakut