Rapamycin nanoparticles improves drug bioavailability in PLAM treatment by interstitial injection

Orphanet J Rare Dis. 2022 Sep 9;17(1):349. doi: 10.1186/s13023-022-02511-6.


Background: Pulmonary lymphangiomyomatosis (PLAM) is a rare interstitial lung disease characterized by diffuse cystic changes caused by the destructive proliferation of smooth muscle-like cells or LAM cells. PLAM is more common in young women than other people, and a consensus is lacking regarding PLAM treatment. The clinical treatment of PLAM is currently dominated by rapamycin. By inhibiting the mTOR signaling pathway, rapamycin can inhibit and delay PLAM's occurrence and development. However, the application of rapamycin also has shortcomings, including the drug's low oral bioavailability and a high binding rate to hemoglobin, thus significantly decreasing the amount of drug distributed to the lungs.

Methods and results: Here, we developed a new mode of rapamycin administration in which the drug was injected into the intrathecal space after being nanosized; the directional flow characteristics of the liquid in the intrathecal space were exploited to increase the drug content in the interstitial fluid to the greatest extent possible. We studied the rapamycin content in the interstitial fluid and blood after intervaginal space injection (ISI). Compared with oral administration, ISI significantly increased the drug concentration in the lung interstitial fluid.

Conclusions: These results provided new ideas for treating PLAM and optimizing the dosing regimens of drugs with similar characteristics to rapamycin.

Keywords: Intervaginal space injection (ISI); LC–MS; Pulmonary lymphangiomyomatosis (PLAM); Rapamycin.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Administration, Oral
  • Biological Availability
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Lymphangioleiomyomatosis*
  • Nanoparticles*
  • Sirolimus / therapeutic use


  • Sirolimus