Delay discounting in Parkinson's disease: A systematic review and meta-analysis

Behav Brain Res. 2023 Jan 5:436:114101. doi: 10.1016/j.bbr.2022.114101. Epub 2022 Sep 7.


Delay discounting refers to the depreciation of the value of a reward as a function of the time it takes to obtain it. Growing evidence shows altered delay discounting in several pathological conditions, including neurological disorders. Here, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of the published literature on delay discounting (DD) in Parkinson's Disease (PD). We found steeper DD in patients with PD, compared to healthy controls, both in "on" and "off" dopaminergic medication. These results confirm altered DD in PD and suggest an independent influence of the dopaminergic medication and the clinical condition itself on it. Also the effect of impulse control disorder and of pharmacological treatments are analysed.

Keywords: Dopaminergic medication; Impulsivity; Parkinson’s disease; Steeper delay discounting.

Publication types

  • Meta-Analysis
  • Review
  • Systematic Review
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Delay Discounting*
  • Disruptive, Impulse Control, and Conduct Disorders*
  • Dopamine Agents / therapeutic use
  • Humans
  • Parkinson Disease* / drug therapy
  • Reward


  • Dopamine Agents