We have determined and analyzed the primary structure of human secretogranin I (chromogranin B), a tyrosine-sulfated secretory protein found in a wide variety of peptidergic endocrine cells. A 2.5-kb cDNA clone, hybridizing to an mRNA of similar length, was isolated from a cDNA library of human pheochromocytoma. The identity of the clone was established by comparison of its deduced amino acid sequence with N-terminal and several internal secretogranin I sequences as well as by immunoprecipitation of the protein produced by in vitro transcription-translation of the cloned cDNA. Secretogranin I is a 657 amino acid long polypeptide of 76 kd and is preceded by a cleaved N-terminal signal peptide of 20 residues. Comparison of the predicted amino acid sequence of human secretogranin I with that of bovine chromogranin A reveals significant homologies near the N termini and at the C termini. The N-terminal homologous domains contain the only two cysteine residues of both proteins and form disulfide-stabilized loop structures. The sequences between the homologous terminal domains in both proteins differ but are characterized by a remarkable hydrophilicity, an abundance of acidic amino acids and potential dibasic cleavage sites for the generation of smaller, perhaps hormone-like, peptides.