Canine hepatic calodiosis with cirrhosis

J Parasit Dis. 2022 Sep;46(3):613-616. doi: 10.1007/s12639-022-01501-6. Epub 2022 Jun 4.


The nematode parasite Calodium hepaticum (Capillaria hepatica) has a global distribution and is commonly reported in rodents (definitive host), dogs, cats and wild animals. Humans especially children are more susceptible to the parasitic infection. This paper documents an incidental finding of hepatic calodiosis with cirrhosis in a stray dog and discusses the zoonotic implications. A non descript dog was brought for necropsy examination to the Department of Veterinary Pathology, Madras Veterinary College, Tamil Nadu, India. Liver appeared dark brown, mottled with multifocal random variably sized, grey white flat firm areas. Histopathologically, liver tissue revealed multiple random encysted large collection of eggs surrounded by mild inflammation with a few lymphocytes, macrophages and fine fibrosis. The eggs had characteristic barrel shape, bipolar ends, bilayered wall, cross striations between the walls, and yolk. Periodic acid Schiff stain demonstrated the glycolic wall of ova. Marked portal to portal fibrosis was demonstrated by Masson's trichrome (for collagen) and by Warthin-Starry (for reticulin) stains. The stage of parasitic infection was diagnosed as intermediate to chronic due to fibrosis. A need to study the prevalence of the disease in rodents, human and animals is emphasized. Improper burial of carcasses of rodents and dogs may contribute to spread of infection. Pets and stray animals may transmit infection to human and pose health risk.

Keywords: Capillaria hepatica; Cirrhosis; Dog; Hepatic calodiosis.