csORF-finder: an effective ensemble learning framework for accurate identification of multi-species coding short open reading frames

Brief Bioinform. 2022 Nov 19;23(6):bbac392. doi: 10.1093/bib/bbac392.


Short open reading frames (sORFs) refer to the small nucleic fragments no longer than 303 nt in length that probably encode small peptides. To date, translatable sORFs have been found in both untranslated regions of messenger ribonucleic acids (RNAs; mRNAs) and long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs), playing vital roles in a myriad of biological processes. As not all sORFs are translated or essentially translatable, it is important to develop a highly accurate computational tool for characterizing the coding potential of sORFs, thereby facilitating discovery of novel functional peptides. In light of this, we designed a series of ensemble models by integrating Efficient-CapsNet and LightGBM, collectively termed csORF-finder, to differentiate the coding sORFs (csORFs) from non-coding sORFs in Homo sapiens, Mus musculus and Drosophila melanogaster, respectively. To improve the performance of csORF-finder, we introduced a novel feature encoding scheme named trinucleotide deviation from expected mean (TDE) and computed all types of in-frame sequence-based features, such as i-framed-3mer, i-framed-CKSNAP and i-framed-TDE. Benchmarking results showed that these features could significantly boost the performance compared to the original 3-mer, CKSNAP and TDE features. Our performance comparisons showed that csORF-finder achieved a superior performance than the state-of-the-art methods for csORF prediction on multi-species and non-ATG initiation independent test datasets. Furthermore, we applied csORF-finder to screen the lncRNA datasets for identifying potential csORFs. The resulting data serve as an important computational repository for further experimental validation. We hope that csORF-finder can be exploited as a powerful platform for high-throughput identification of csORFs and functional characterization of these csORFs encoded peptides.

Keywords: coding sORFs; deep learning; ensemble learning; feature encoding; in-frame sequence features.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Drosophila melanogaster / genetics
  • Humans
  • Machine Learning
  • Mice
  • Open Reading Frames*
  • Peptides / genetics
  • RNA, Long Noncoding* / genetics
  • RNA, Messenger / genetics


  • Peptides
  • RNA, Long Noncoding
  • RNA, Messenger