The TOR complex controls ATP levels to regulate actin cytoskeleton dynamics in Arabidopsis

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2022 Sep 20;119(38):e2122969119. doi: 10.1073/pnas.2122969119. Epub 2022 Sep 12.


Energy is essential for all cellular functions in a living organism. How cells coordinate their physiological processes with energy status and availability is thus an important question. The turnover of actin cytoskeleton between its monomeric and filamentous forms is a major energy drain in eukaryotic cells. However, how actin dynamics are regulated by ATP levels remain largely unknown in plant cells. Here, we observed that seedlings with impaired functions of target of rapamycin complex 1 (TORC1), either by mutation of the key component, RAPTOR1B, or inhibition of TOR activity by specific inhibitors, displayed reduced sensitivity to actin cytoskeleton disruptors compared to their controls. Consistently, actin filament dynamics, but not organization, were suppressed in TORC1-impaired cells. Subcellular localization analysis and quantification of ATP concentration demonstrated that RAPTOR1B localized at cytoplasm and mitochondria and that ATP levels were significantly reduced in TORC1-impaired plants. Further pharmacologic experiments showed that the inhibition of mitochondrial functions led to phenotypes mimicking those observed in raptor1b mutants at the level of both plant growth and actin dynamics. Exogenous feeding of adenine could partially restore ATP levels and actin dynamics in TORC1-deficient plants. Thus, these data support an important role for TORC1 in coordinating ATP homeostasis and actin dynamics in plant cells.

Keywords: TOR; actin; cytoskeleton; energy.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Actin Cytoskeleton* / metabolism
  • Actins
  • Adenosine Triphosphate* / metabolism
  • Arabidopsis Proteins* / genetics
  • Arabidopsis Proteins* / physiology
  • Arabidopsis* / genetics
  • Arabidopsis* / metabolism
  • Mechanistic Target of Rapamycin Complex 1*
  • Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases* / genetics
  • Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases* / physiology


  • Actins
  • Arabidopsis Proteins
  • Adenosine Triphosphate
  • TOR protein, Arabidopsis
  • Mechanistic Target of Rapamycin Complex 1