Er:YAG laser removal of zirconia crowns on titanium abutment of dental implants: an in vitro study

BMC Oral Health. 2022 Sep 12;22(1):396. doi: 10.1186/s12903-022-02427-4.


Background: This research aimed to explore feasibility and the time required when erbium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Er:YAG) laser as a non-invasive treatment modality to retrieve different thicknesses of zirconia material bonded by two dental cements from titanium implant abutments.

Methods: Prepared 80 titanium blocks (length: 20 mm, width: 10 mm, height: 10 mm) and square zirconia sheets (length: 10 mm) with different thicknesses (1 mm, 2 mm, 3 mm, and 4 mm) were 20 pieces each. Resin modified glass ionomer cement (RelyX Luting 2; RXL) and resin cement (Clearfil SA luting; CSL) were used to bond zirconia sheet and titanium block. Specimens were kept in 100% humidity for 48 h. Er:YAG laser was used to retrieve the zirconia sheet and recorded the time. Universal testing machine was used to measure the residual adhesion of the samples that did not retrieve after 5 min of laser irradiation. Shear bond strength (MPa) and the time data (s) were analyzed using Kruskal-Wallis Test. The bonding surface and the irradiation surface of the zirconia sheet was examined with the scanning electron microscopy (SEM).

Results: Within 5 min of laser irradiation, RXL group: 1 mm group all fell off, 2 mm group had 3 specimens did not fall off, there was no statistical difference in the average time between the two groups; CSL group: half of the 1 mm group fell off. Shear bond strength test results: there was no statistical difference between 1 and 2 mm in RXL group and 1 mm in CSL group, there was no statistical difference between 3 mm in RXL group and 2 mm in CSL group, and there were significant differences statistically in comparison between any two groups in the rest. SEM inspection showed that the bonding surface and the irradiation surface of the zirconia sheet had changes.

Conclusion: In this vitro study, the following could be concluded: it is faster to remove zirconia crowns with thickness less than 2 mm from titanium abutment when luted with RelyX Luting 2 compared to Clearfil SA luting.

Keywords: Er:YAG laser; Resin cement; Resin modified glass ionomer cement; Titanium abutment; Zirconia.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Crowns
  • Dental Bonding*
  • Dental Implants*
  • Humans
  • Lasers, Solid-State* / therapeutic use
  • Titanium
  • Zirconium


  • Dental Implants
  • Zirconium
  • Titanium
  • zirconium oxide