Gradient Boosted Tree Approaches for Mapping European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire Core 30 Onto 5-Level Version of EQ-5D Index for Patients With Cancer

Value Health. 2022 Sep 9;S1098-3015(22)02140-4. doi: 10.1016/j.jval.2022.07.020. Online ahead of print.

Abstract

Objectives: This study aimed to develop direct and response mapping algorithms from the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire Core 30 onto the 5-level version of EQ-5D index based on the gradient boosted tree (GBT), a promising modern machine learning method.

Methods: We used the Quality of Life Mapping Algorithm for Cancer study data (903 observations from 903 patients) for training GBTs and testing their predictive performance. In the Quality of Life Mapping Algorithm for Cancer study, patients with advanced solid tumor were enrolled, and the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire Core 30 and 5-level version of EQ-5D were simultaneously evaluated. The Japanese value set was used for direct mapping, whereas the Japanese and US value sets were used for response mapping. We trained the GBTs in the training data set (80%) with cross-validation and tested the predictive performance measured by the root mean squared error (RMSE), mean absolute error (MAE), and mean error in the test data set (20%).

Results: The RMSE and MAE in the test data set were larger in the GBT approaches than in the previously developed regression-based approaches. The mean error in the test data set tended to be smaller in the GBT approaches than in the previously developed regression-based approaches.

Conclusions: The predictive performances in the RMSE and MAE did not improve by the GBT approaches compared with regression approaches. The flexibility of the GBT approaches had the potential to reduce overprediction and underprediction in poor and good health, respectively. Further research is needed to establish the role of machine learning methods in mapping a nonpreference-based measure onto health utility.

Keywords: 5-level version of EQ-5D; European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire Core 30; gradient boosted tree; health utility; machine learning; mapping.