Erythrophagocytes in hemolytic anemia, wound healing, and cancer

Trends Mol Med. 2022 Nov;28(11):906-915. doi: 10.1016/j.molmed.2022.08.005. Epub 2022 Sep 10.


Hemolysis is a ubiquitous pathology defined as premature red blood cell destruction within the circulation or local tissues. One of the most archetypal functions of macrophages is phagocytosis of damaged or extravasated red blood cells, preventing the extracellular release of toxic hemoglobin and heme. Upon erythrophagocytosis, spiking intracellular heme concentrations drive macrophage transformation into erythrophagocytes, leveraging antioxidative and iron recycling capacities to defend against hemolytic stress. This unique phenotype transformation is coordinated by a regulatory network comprising the transcription factors BACH1, SPI-C, NRF2, and ATF1. Erythrophagocytes negatively regulate inflammation and immunity and may modulate disease-specific outcomes in hemolytic anemia, wound healing, atherosclerosis, and cancer. In this opinion article, we outline the known and presumed functions of erythrophagocytes and their implications for therapeutic innovation and research.

Keywords: NRF2; erythrophagocytosis; heme; hemolysis; macrophage; tumor-associated macrophage.

Publication types

  • Review
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Anemia, Hemolytic* / pathology
  • Erythrocytes
  • Heme
  • Hemolysis
  • Humans
  • Neoplasms* / pathology
  • Phagocytosis
  • Wound Healing


  • Heme