Prospective comparison of restriction spectrum imaging and non-invasive biomarkers to predict upgrading on active surveillance prostate biopsy

Prostate Cancer Prostatic Dis. 2022 Sep 12. doi: 10.1038/s41391-022-00591-w. Online ahead of print.


Background: Protocol-based active surveillance (AS) biopsies have led to poor compliance. To move to risk-based protocols, more accurate imaging biomarkers are needed to predict upgrading on AS prostate biopsy. We compared restriction spectrum imaging (RSI-MRI) generated signal maps as a biomarker to other available non-invasive biomarkers to predict upgrading or reclassification on an AS biopsy.

Methods: We prospectively enrolled men on prostate cancer AS undergoing repeat biopsy from January 2016 to June 2019 to obtain an MRI and biomarkers to predict upgrading. Subjects underwent a prostate multiparametric MRI and a short duration, diffusion-weighted enhanced MRI called RSI to generate a restricted signal map along with evaluation of 30 biomarkers (14 clinico-epidemiologic features, 9 molecular biomarkers, and 7 radiologic-associated features). Our primary outcome was upgrading or reclassification on subsequent AS prostate biopsy. Statistical analysis included operating characteristic improvement using AUROC and AUPRC.

Results: The individual biomarker with the highest area under the receiver operator characteristic curve (AUC) was RSI-MRI (AUC = 0.84; 95% CI: 0.71-0.96). The best non-imaging biomarker was prostate volume-corrected Prostate Health Index density (PHI, AUC = 0.68; 95% CI: 0.53-0.82). Non-imaging biomarkers had a negligible effect on predicting upgrading at the next biopsy but did improve predictions of overall time to progression in AS.

Conclusions: RSI-MRI, PIRADS, and PHI could improve the predictive ability to detect upgrading in AS. The strongest predictor of clinically significant prostate cancer on AS biopsy was RSI-MRI signal output.