Healthcare-Related HCV Genotype 4d Infections in Kayseri, Turkey

Turk J Gastroenterol. 2022 Nov;33(11):964-970. doi: 10.5152/tjg.2022.21822.


Background: The frequency of genotype 4 hepatitis C virus infection is significantly higher in a city compared to other provinces in Turkey. In this study, we aimed to investigate the epidemiology and risk factors of hepatitis C virus genotype 4 infection in Kayseri province of Turkey.

Methods: A case-control study was conducted with 61 hepatitis C virus genotype 4-infected patients and 71 controls. A questionnaire was administered to the patients and controls, asking for information about the risk factors of hepatitis C virus transmission. Core/ E1 and NS5B regions of hepatitis C virus genome were amplified and sequenced by Sanger method. Phylogenetic analysis and molecular clock analysis were performed. The risk was determined by calculating the odds ratio and 95% CI. Logistic regression analysis was performed to determine the effect of risk factors by controlling for confounding variables.

Results: Kayseri isolates were closely related to type 4d sequences but formed a separate cluster. According to the molecular clock analysis, hepatitis C virus genotype 4d entered Kayseri province probably between 1941 and 1988. Blood transfusion and surgical intervention were found to be significant risk factors for the infection.

Conclusion: Epidemiological data showed that hepatitis C virus genotype 4d infections are significantly associated with unsafe medical procedures.

MeSH terms

  • Case-Control Studies
  • Delivery of Health Care
  • Genotype
  • Hepacivirus* / genetics
  • Hepatitis C* / epidemiology
  • Humans
  • Phylogeny
  • Turkey / epidemiology