Imaging of Metabolic Bone Diseases: The Spine View, Part II

Semin Musculoskelet Radiol. 2022 Aug;26(4):491-500. doi: 10.1055/s-0042-1754341. Epub 2022 Sep 14.


Metabolic bone diseases comprise a wide spectrum. Osteoporosis, the most frequent, characteristically involves the spine, with a high impact on health care systems and on the morbidity of patients due to the occurrence of vertebral fractures (VFs).Part II of this review completes an overview of state-of-the-art techniques on the imaging of metabolic bone diseases of the spine, focusing on specific populations and future perspectives. We address the relevance of diagnosis and current status on VF assessment and quantification. We also analyze the diagnostic techniques in the pediatric population and then review the assessment of body composition around the spine and its potential application. We conclude with a discussion of the future of osteoporosis screening, through opportunistic diagnosis and the application of artificial intelligence.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Artificial Intelligence
  • Child
  • Diagnostic Imaging
  • Humans
  • Osteoporosis* / diagnostic imaging
  • Spinal Fractures* / diagnostic imaging
  • Spine / diagnostic imaging