Aim: Vascular endothelial function and atherosclerosis are known to be important risk factors for cardiovascular disease. However, it remains unknown whether remnant cholesterol (RC) correlates with vascular endothelial function and atherosclerosis as represented by flow-mediated vasodilation (FMD) and brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV). Therefore, in this study, we aimed to investigate this in the general population.
Methods: In this study, we examined 13,237 subjects who have undergone blood lipid, FMD, and baPWV measurements. Participants were divided into four groups based on RC quartiles. Multivariable linear regression models were used to calculate odds ratios for FMD and baPWV according to the RC levels.
Results: A significant negative relationship was found between RC and FMD (β=-0.14, p=0.014), whereas RC was positively associated with baPWV (β=21.42, p＜0.001), especially in the male and without chronic disease medication populations. The population was divided into three groups according to their lipids: dyslipidemia group, nondyslipidemia but RC increased group (RC ＞0.78 mmol/L), and nondyslipidemia and RC normal group (RC ≤ 0.78 mmol/L). The FMD of the three groups was 7.09%±3.36%, 7.39%±3.38%, and 7.57%±3.54%, respectively. The baPWV of the three groups was 1445.26±261.56 cm/s, 1425.04±265.24 cm/s, and 1382.73±267.75 cm/s. Significant differences were noted between the groups.
Conclusions: The findings indicated that a higher RC was an independent predictive factor for participants with endothelial function and atherosclerosis. It is important to use RC as a risk management indicator of vascular function, especially for those with normal conventional lipid parameters but increased RC.
Keywords: Brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity; Check-up population; Endothelial dysfunction; Flow-mediated vasodilation; Remnant cholesterol; Subclinical atherosclerosis.