The consistency of the refractive error alterations produced by monocular form deprivation in developing monkeys and the influence of the duration and the age at the onset of deprivation on the magnitude of these alterations was investigated. Refractive error and axial length measurements are presented for a group of monkeys which had one eye sutured closed for a period exceeding 18 months beginning at various ages ranging from 26 days to 25 months. In addition, we pooled and reanalyzed refractive error and axial length data for monocularly form-deprived monkeys from previous studies. When the alterations in the deprived eye's refractive status are specified with respect to the fellow nondeprived eye, the results are, with a few noteworthy exceptions, consistent between laboratories and individual animals. In most cases, early monocular form deprivation causes the treated eye to develop a longer axial length and to manifest a more myopic/less hyperopic refractive error than the fellow nontreated eye. The magnitude of this deprivation-induced alteration is generally dependent on the duration and the age at the onset of form deprivation. The earlier the deprivation is initiated and the longer it is maintained, the greater the degree of the relative myopia produced in the deprived eye.