Recent advances of lateral flow immunoassay components as "point of need"

J Immunoassay Immunochem. 2022 Sep 15;1-26. doi: 10.1080/15321819.2022.2122063. Online ahead of print.

Abstract

Lateral flow immunoassay is the leading Point of Care test and is becoming increasingly essential for its versatile properties. The attraction of lateral flow assay (LFA) has reached its prime position during recent SARS-CoV-2 pandemic and Ebola, Zika epidemics in third world countries where primary screening of the disease and financial issues are very important. During the last decade traditional methodology of LFA was limited to visual detection and qualitative assessment only. However, recently researchers are focusing on the development and improvement of this tool to enhance its specificity, assessment power (quantitative) to make it an alternative to traditional lab-based technology. Modifying working principle and instrumentation, combination of different modern molecular techniques such as Reverse transcription loop mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP), Clustered regularly inter-spaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR-Cas), Recombinase amplification polymerase (RPA), also association of image-based software, involvement of nanotechnology, implementation of LFA ruler have established authenticity and ultra-specific detection level. These leading immunochromatographic techniques offer simultaneous detection of different analytes from a single sample unit into one multiplex strip and provide the necessary information. This review is a foremost attempt to encompass recent advances of lateral flow assays in combination with molecular biology techniques along with improvements of assay components for improved diagnostic sensitivity and specificity. Some infectious disease diagnosis by LFA with its reporter and low detection limit have also been mentioned in this review.

Keywords: Lateral flow immunoassay; Point-Of-care; low detection limit (LOD); molecular technique; nanoparticle; sensitivity; specificity.

Publication types

  • Review