Objectives: This study aimed to determine the prevalence and predictors of euthyroid sick syndrome (ESS) in pediatric intensive care, and to establish a link between thyroid function tests and mortality.
Methods: Between January 2015 and March 2020, children admitted to our pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) and tested for free triiodothyronine (fT3), free thyroxine (fT4), and thyrotropin (TSH) levels were included. Patients with decreased fT3, with normal or decreased fT4, and normal or decreased TSH levels were assigned to the ESS group. The association between biochemical indicators and ESS, as well as the relationship between fT3 and mortality, were examined.
Results: A total of 141 (36%) of 386 children included to study were classified in the ESS group. The ESS group had a higher rate of 28-day mortality (12 [8.5%] vs. 9 [3.7%]). Blood urea nitrogen (BUN), albumin, platelet, lactate, and pediatric index of mortality 3 [PIM3 (%)] were significantly associated with ESS (odds ratios in order: 1.024, 0.422, 0.729, 1.208, 1.013). Multivariate regression analysis showed that BUN, albumin, platelet, and lactate were independently associated with ESS progression. The area under curve (AUC [95%CI]) for fT3 was 0.644 (0.555-0.789) to detect mortality. Children with a fT3 level lower than 2.31 pg/mL had significantly higher 28-day mortality (log rank test, p=0.001).
Conclusions: Our study identified BUN, albumin, lactate, and platelet count as independent risk factors for ESS progression in children. Furthermore, our findings indicated a correlation between fT3 and mortality, which makes fT3 an ideal candidate to be included in mortality indices.
Keywords: PRISM; intensive care unit statistics; non-thyroidal illness; reverse T3; survival rate.
© 2022 Walter de Gruyter GmbH, Berlin/Boston.