The Impact of Early Residual Fluid After Anti-Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Initiation in Patients With Neovascular Age-Related Macular Degeneration: A Meta-Analysis Review

Ophthalmic Surg Lasers Imaging Retina. 2022 Sep;53(9):506-513. doi: 10.3928/23258160-20220726-01. Epub 2022 Sep 1.


Fluid in neovascular age-related macular degeneration is often used to assess patient response to anti-vascular endothelial growth factor therapy. Various studies theorize that early residual fluid (ERF), noted as persistence of intraretinal fluid and subretinal fluid after the anti-vascular endothelial growth factor loading phase (LP), may be predictive of visual outcomes. This meta-analysis examined the existing literature on the relationship between ERF and long-term visual acuity (VA) and found that those who were fluid-free after the LP tended to have the highest VA gains overall. Early intraretinal fluid appeared to be associated with reduced VA gains, whereas the impact of early sub-retinal fluid was more debated. For those with ERF, monthly or more frequent dosing regimens following the LP appeared most optimal for VA. As most studies in this review were post hoc analyses, this highlights the need for real-world studies investigating ERF and its effect on visual outcomes in neovascular age-related macular degeneration. [Ophthalmic Surg Lasers Imaging Retina 2022;53:506-513.].

Publication types

  • Meta-Analysis
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Angiogenesis Inhibitors / therapeutic use
  • Bevacizumab
  • Endothelial Growth Factors / therapeutic use
  • Follow-Up Studies
  • Humans
  • Intravitreal Injections
  • Macular Degeneration* / drug therapy
  • Ranibizumab* / therapeutic use
  • Tomography, Optical Coherence / methods
  • Treatment Outcome
  • Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A


  • Angiogenesis Inhibitors
  • Endothelial Growth Factors
  • Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A
  • Bevacizumab
  • Ranibizumab