Purpose: The purpose of this study was to report the first case of keratitis caused by Cladorrhinum samala and review of the literature.
Methods: This was a case report and literature review.
Results: A 35-year-old immunocompetent man presented with pain, redness, and watering in the right eye 7 days after trauma with some foreign body. He was diagnosed with infectious keratitis, and a thorough microbiological workup was performed. Corneal scrapings were subjected to a potassium hydroxide (KOH) examination, Gram staining, bacterial (blood agar and Robertson cooked meat broth), and fungal culture (Sabouraud dextrose agar and brain-heart infusion agar). The KOH mount revealed septate fungal hyphae with irregular margins. Yellow-white nonsporulating mycelial growth was noted on the Sabouraud dextrose agar, which was identified as C. samala by sequencing. The patient responded to 5% natamycin and 1% voriconazole eye drops, and there was a formation of a corneal opacity in a period of 3 weeks.
Conclusions: We report the first case of keratitis by C. samala, highlighting the emergence of a rare dematiaceous fungi causing keratitis and the role of molecular modalities in the diagnosis of nonsporulating fungi in suspected cases.
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