AALL1931, a phase 2/3 study conducted in collaboration with the Children's Oncology Group, investigated the efficacy and safety of JZP458 (asparaginase erwinia chrysanthemi [recombinant]-rywn), a recombinant Erwinia asparaginase derived from a novel expression platform, in patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia/lymphoblastic lymphoma who developed hypersensitivity/silent inactivation to Escherichia coli-derived asparaginases. Each dose of a pegylated E coli-derived asparaginase remaining in patients' treatment plan was substituted by 6 doses of intramuscular (IM) JZP458 on Monday/Wednesday/Friday (MWF). Three regimens were evaluated: cohort 1a, 25 mg/m2 MWF; cohort 1b, 37.5 mg/m2 MWF; and cohort 1c, 25/25/50 mg/m2 MWF. Efficacy was evaluated by the proportion of patients maintaining adequate nadir serum asparaginase activity (NSAA ≥0.1 IU/mL) at 72 hours and at 48 hours during the first treatment course. A total of 167 patients were enrolled: cohort 1a (n = 33), cohort 1b (n = 83), and cohort 1c (n = 51). Mean serum asparaginase activity levels (IU/mL) at 72 hours were cohort 1a, 0.16, cohort 1b, 0.33, and cohort 1c, 0.47, and at 48 hours were 0.45, 0.88, and 0.66, respectively. The proportion of patients achieving NSAA ≥0.1 IU/mL at 72 and 48 hours in cohort 1c was 90% (44/49) and 96% (47/49), respectively. Simulated data from a population pharmacokinetic model matched the observed data well. Grade 3/4 treatment-related adverse events occurred in 86 of 167 (51%) patients; those leading to discontinuation included pancreatitis (6%), allergic reactions (5%), increased alanine aminotransferase (1%), and hyperammonemia (1%). Results demonstrate that IM JZP458 at 25/25/50 mg/m2 MWF is efficacious and has a safety profile consistent with other asparaginases. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT04145531.
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