Autoantibodies targeting malondialdehyde-modifications in rheumatoid arthritis regulate osteoclasts via inducing glycolysis and lipid biosynthesis

J Autoimmun. 2022 Dec:133:102903. doi: 10.1016/j.jaut.2022.102903. Epub 2022 Sep 13.


Proteins subjected to post-translational modifications, such as citrullination, carbamylation, acetylation or malondialdehyde (MDA)-modification are targeted by autoantibodies in seropositive rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Epidemiological and experimental studies have both suggested the pathogenicity of such humoral autoimmunity, however, molecular mechanisms triggered by anti-modified protein antibodies have remained to be identified. Here we describe in detail the pathways induced by anti-MDA modified protein antibodies that were obtained from synovial B cells of RA patients and that possessed robust osteoclast stimulatory potential and induced bone erosion in vivo. Anti-MDA antibodies boosted glycolysis in developing osteoclasts via an FcγRI, HIF-1α and MYC-dependent mechanism and subsequently increased oxidative phosphorylation. Osteoclast development required robust phosphoglyceride and triacylglyceride biosynthesis, which was also enhanced by anti-MDA by modulating citrate production and expression of the glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase 1 (GPD1) and glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase 2 (GPAT2) genes. In summary, we described novel metabolic pathways instrumental for osteoclast differentiation, which were targeted by anti-MDA antibodies, accelerating bone erosion, a central component of RA pathogenesis.

Keywords: Anti-MDA modified protein antibody; Autoantibody; Glycolysis; Lipid biosynthesis; Osteoclast; Rheumatoid arthritis.

MeSH terms

  • Arthritis, Rheumatoid*
  • Autoantibodies*
  • Humans
  • Lipids
  • Malondialdehyde


  • Autoantibodies
  • Malondialdehyde
  • Lipids