Applying the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research to Identify Implementation Determinants for the Integrated District Evidence-to-Action Program, Mozambique

Glob Health Sci Pract. 2022 Sep 15;10(Suppl 1):e2100714. doi: 10.9745/GHSP-D-21-00714. Print 2022 Sep 15.


Introduction: The Integrated District Evidence-to-Action program is an audit and feedback intervention introduced in 2017 in Manica and Sofala provinces, Mozambique, to reduce mortality in children younger than 5 years. We describe barriers and facilitators to early-stage effectiveness of that intervention.

Method: We embedded the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research (CFIR) into an extended case study design to inform sampling, data collection, analysis, and interpretation. We collected data in 4 districts in Manica and Sofala Provinces in November 2018. Data collection included document review, 22 in-depth individual interviews, and 2 focus group discussions (FGDs) with 19 provincial, district, and facility managers and nurses. Most participants (70.2%) were nurses and facility managers and the majority were women (87.8%). We audio-recorded all but 2 interviews and FGDs and conducted a consensus-based iterative analysis.

Results: Facilitators of effective intervention implementation included: implementation of the core intervention components of audit and feedback meetings, supportive supervision and mentorship, and small grants as originally planned; positive pressure from district managers and study nurses on health facility staff to strive for excellence; and easy access to knowledge and information about the intervention. Implementation barriers were the intervention's lack of compatibility in not addressing the scarcity of human and financial resources and inadequate infrastructures for maternal and child health services at district and facility levels and; the intervention's lack of adaptability in having little flexibility in the design and decision making about the use of intervention funds and data collection tools.

Discussion: Our comprehensive and systematic use of the CFIR within an extended case study design generated granular evidence on CFIR's contribution to implementation science efforts to describe determinants of early-stage intervention implementation. It also provided baseline findings to assess subsequent implementation phases, considering similarities and differences in barriers and facilitators across study districts and facilities. Sharing preliminary findings with stakeholders promoted timely decision making about intervention implementation.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

MeSH terms

  • Child
  • Female
  • Focus Groups
  • Humans
  • Implementation Science*
  • Male
  • Mozambique
  • Research Design*