The Modified Mini-Mental State (3MS) examination

J Clin Psychiatry. 1987 Aug;48(8):314-8.


The Mini-Mental State (MMS) examination is a widely used screening test for dementia. The Modified Mini-Mental State (3MS) incorporates four added test items, more graded scoring, and some other minor changes. These modifications are designed to sample a broader variety of cognitive functions, cover a wider range of difficulty levels, and enhance the reliability and the validity of the scores. The 3MS retains the brevity, ease of administration, and objective scoring of the MMS but broadens the range of scores from 0-30 to 0-100. Greater sensitivities of the 3MS over the MMS are demonstrated with the pentagon item drawn by 249 patients. A summary form for administration and scoring that can generate both the MMS and the 3MS scores is provided so that the examiner can maintain continuity with existing data and can obtain a more informative assessment.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Alzheimer Disease / diagnosis
  • Alzheimer Disease / psychology
  • Dementia / diagnosis*
  • Dementia / psychology
  • Humans
  • Psychiatric Status Rating Scales*
  • Psychometrics