The commercially available protein-digesting enzyme bromelain is derived from the pineapple fruit or stem. Bromelain from fruit and stems are produced in different ways and has varied enzyme compositions. "Bromelain" often refers to the "stem bromelain". Bromelain is a combination of several thiol endopeptidases and others including various protease inhibitors, glucosidase, cellulase, phosphatase, peroxidase, and escharase. Studies conducted in both the lab and on animals show that bromelain has a variety of fibrinolytic, anti-edematous, antithrombotic, and anti-inflammatory effects. The body can absorb bromelain to a significant extent without it ceasing its proteolytic activity or having any negative side effects. Numerous therapeutic advantages of bromelain include wound debridement, improved drug absorption, and the management of sinusitis, bronchitis, angina pectoris, surgical trauma, and thrombophlebitis. Additionally, it treats numerous cardiovascular conditions, diarrhoea, and osteoarthritis. Bromelain also encourages apoptotic cell death and exhibits some anti-cancerous properties. This review compiles the crucial traits, medical and dental uses of bromelain as well as its potential mechanism of action.
Keywords: antimicrobial; bioactive; bromelain; bromelain enzyme; phytomedicine.
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