Insertion and removal torque of dental implants placed using different drilling protocols: An experimental study on artificial bone substitutes

J Prosthodont. 2023 Aug;32(7):633-638. doi: 10.1111/jopr.13607. Epub 2022 Oct 4.


Purpose: The aim of this in vitro study was to measure the insertion and removal torque values of dental implant replicas inserted into artificial bone blocks using different surgical burs and drilling protocols.

Materials and methods: Four types of artificial, polyurethane bone blocks were used with different thicknesses (1 and 2 mm) and densities (soft-1 mm, soft-2 mm, dense-1 mm, and dense-2 mm) of the simulated cortical and cancellous bone, respectively. Each bone construct was drilled with Straumann and Densah drills in both clockwise and counterclockwise directions for a total of 16 experimental conditions. For every scenario, 38 implant replicas were inserted and then removed after 1 min. Outcomes of interest were the insertion and removal torque values which were recorded by a torque meter. ANOVA and Tukey HSD tests were used to assess differences across each combination of drill, direction, and bone type.

Results: Densah counterclockwise registered statistically greater values for both insertion and removal torque, followed by Densah clockwise, Straumann counterclockwise, and Straumann clockwise. Increasing insertion and removal torque values were progressively reported for bone type (soft-1 mm, dense-1 mm, soft-2 mm, and dense-2 mm). The mean values of insertion and removal torque were significantly different (p < 0.05) across the four bone types, different burs, and with the two drilling modalities.

Conclusions: Densah bur resulted in significantly greater values of torque compared to the Straumann drills for all the experimental conditions. The thickness of the cortical layer and the counterclockwise drilling direction play a significant role in determining the implant insertion torque.

Keywords: bone substitutes; cortical bone thickness; implant primary stability; insertion torque; removal torque; surgical technique.

MeSH terms

  • Bone Density
  • Bone Substitutes*
  • Bone and Bones
  • Dental Implantation, Endosseous / methods
  • Dental Implants*
  • Torque


  • Dental Implants
  • Bone Substitutes