Sex-specific impact of anthropometric parameters on outcomes after transcatheter edge-to-edge repair for secondary mitral regurgitation

Int J Cardiol. 2023 Jan 15:371:312-318. doi: 10.1016/j.ijcard.2022.09.028. Epub 2022 Sep 15.


Background: Body surface area (BSA) has been reported to be the stronger predictor for prognosis than body mass index in heart failure (HF) patients. The sex-specific association of BSA with mortality has been unclear.

Methods: EuroSMR, a European multicenter registry, included patients who underwent edge-to-edge repair (TEER) for secondary mitral regurgitation (SMR). The outcome was two-year all-cause mortality.

Results: The present cohort included 1594 HF patients (age, 74 ± 10 years; male, 66%). Association of calculated BSA with two-year all-cause mortality was evaluated. Patients were classified into three BSA groups: the lowest 10% (S), the highest 10% (L), and intermediate between S and L (M). Mean BSA was 1.87 ± 0.21 m2 (male, 1.94 ± 0.18 m2; female, 1.73 ± 0.18 m2). The association of BSA with the endpoint in females showed a U-shaped curve, indicating worse prognosis for both S and L. The association in males followed a linear regression, demonstrating better prognosis for L. Hazard ratio (HR) of L to S in males was 0.43 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.25-0.74; p = 0.002), whereas HR of L to M in females was 1.76 (95% CI, 1.11-2.78; p = 0.016) (p for interaction = 0.003).

Conclusions: Sex-specific association patterns demonstrate the complex influence of anthropomorphic factors in HF patients scheduled for TEER. Further investigation beyond simple evaluation of weight and height is needed for better comprehension of the obesity paradox and better prediction of the results of transcatheter therapy in HF patients.

Keywords: Heart failure; Obesity paradox; Secondary mitral regurgitation; Sex difference; Transcatheter edge-to-edge repair.

Publication types

  • Multicenter Study

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Cardiac Catheterization / methods
  • Female
  • Heart Failure*
  • Heart Valve Prosthesis Implantation* / methods
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Mitral Valve / surgery
  • Mitral Valve Insufficiency* / diagnosis
  • Mitral Valve Insufficiency* / etiology
  • Mitral Valve Insufficiency* / surgery
  • Treatment Outcome