Impact of pharmacist motivational interviewing on hepatitis B vaccination in adults with diabetes

J Am Pharm Assoc (2003). 2023 Jan-Feb;63(1):66-73.e1. doi: 10.1016/j.japh.2022.08.013. Epub 2022 Aug 19.


Background: In 2011, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices recommended hepatitis B (HepB) vaccination for previously unvaccinated adults (aged 19-59 years) with diabetes. Despite these recommendations, vaccination coverage for HepB vaccination for persons with diabetes remains low.

Objectives: The primary objective was to determine the impact of a community pharmacist-led motivational interviewing (MI) intervention on HepB vaccination initiation among adults with diabetes who were previously unvaccinated against HepB. The secondary objective was to describe HepB vaccination series completion among adults with diabetes who initiated the first dose of a HepB vaccine.

Methods: A prospective, nonrandomized, controlled cluster trial was conducted across 58 regional grocery store chain pharmacies: a total of 29 pharmacies in the MI group and 29 pharmacies in the control group. Pharmacy location-level baseline data were collected during a 12-month pre-program period. The MI program was delivered over 10 months. Alerts were generated during prescription processing throughout the study period for eligible patients at each MI pharmacy location. The MI consisted of a face-to-face conversation between the pharmacist and the patient at the time of prescription pick-up. The difference in the primary outcome of HepB vaccination series initiation between patients receiving MI and control patients was assessed using a difference-in-differences analysis. For series completion, patients who initiated the HepB vaccination series were followed up for over 12 months after their first HepB vaccine dose.

Results: There was a statistically significant 3.711% increase in HepB vaccination when comparing eligible individuals who received the MI intervention (n = 1569) to eligible individuals in the control group (n = 3640). Of the patients in the MI group who initiated HepB vaccination, 40 of 65 patients (61.5%) completed the vaccination series.

Conclusion: A pharmacist-led MI intervention increased HepB vaccination rates among adult patients with diabetes. Community pharmacists can effectively provide vaccinations that require multiple doses to complete the vaccination series.

Publication types

  • Clinical Trial
  • Controlled Clinical Trial
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Diabetes Mellitus*
  • Hepatitis B Vaccines
  • Hepatitis B* / prevention & control
  • Humans
  • Motivational Interviewing*
  • Pharmacists
  • Prospective Studies
  • Vaccination


  • gamma-hydroxy-gamma-ethyl-gamma-phenylbutyramide
  • Hepatitis B Vaccines