Differential diagnosis and pathogenesis of the neurological signs and symptoms in COVID-19 and long-COVID syndrome

CNS Neurosci Ther. 2022 Dec;28(12):1905-1907. doi: 10.1111/cns.13957. Epub 2022 Sep 19.


Neurological features have now been reported very frequently in the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2. The neurological deficits associated features are observed in both acute and chronic stages of COVID-19 and they appear to overlap with wide-ranging symptoms that can be attributed to being of non-neural origins, thus obscuring the definitive diagnosis of neuro-COVID. The pathogenetic factors acting in concert to cause neuronal injury are now emerging, with SARS-CoV-2 directly affecting the brain coupled with the neuroinflammatory factors have been implicated in the causation of disabilities in acute COVID-19 and patients with Long-COVID syndrome. As the differentiation between a neural origin and other organ-based causation of a particular neurological feature is of prognostic significance, it implores a course of action to this covert, yet important neurological challenge.

MeSH terms

  • COVID-19*
  • Diagnosis, Differential
  • Humans
  • Pandemics
  • Post-Acute COVID-19 Syndrome
  • SARS-CoV-2