Viral vector and nucleic acid vaccines against COVID-19: A narrative review

Front Microbiol. 2022 Aug 31;13:984536. doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2022.984536. eCollection 2022.

Abstract

After about 2 years since the first detection of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infections in Wuhan, China, in December 2019 that resulted in a worldwide pandemic, 6.2 million deaths have been recorded. As a result, there is an urgent need for the development of a safe and effective vaccine for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Endeavors for the production of effective vaccines inexhaustibly are continuing. At present according to the World Health Organization (WHO) COVID-19 vaccine tracker and landscape, 153 vaccine candidates are developing in the clinical phase all over the world. Some new and exciting platforms are nucleic acid-based vaccines such as Pfizer Biontech and Moderna vaccines consisting of a messenger RNA (mRNA) encoding a viral spike protein in host cells. Another novel vaccine platform is viral vector vaccine candidates that could be replicating or nonreplicating. These types of vaccines that have a harmless viral vector like adenovirus contain a genome encoding the spike protein of SARS-CoV-2, which induces significant immune responses. This technology of vaccine manufacturing has previously been used in many human clinical trials conducted for adenoviral vector-based vaccines against different infectious agents, including Ebola virus, Zika virus, HIV, and malaria. In this paper, we have a review of nucleic acid-based vaccines that are passing their phase 3 and 4 clinical trials and discuss their efficiency and adverse effects.

Keywords: COVID-19; DNA vaccine; RNA vaccine; SARS-CoV-2; review.

Publication types

  • Review