During NA-induced NST blood flow through BAT increased from 0.18 ml min-1 to 3.21 ml min-1 in 23 degrees C acclimated (equals thermoneutrality) and from 0.61 ml min-1 to 9.67 ml min-1 in outdoors (-2 to 12 degrees C Ta) acclimated Djungarian hamsters. In 23 degrees C acclimated hamsters this increase was accomplished by a diversion of blood flow from visceral organs without a change in cardiac output (19.7 versus 20.5 ml min-1 before and after NA). In outdoors acclimated hamsters we also observed a redistribution of blood flow from the viscera to BAT. In addition, cardiac output increased from 24.3 to 38.8 ml min-1. Metabolic rate of BAT in situ was determined from organ blood flow and the (A-V)O2 of blood across the interscapular BAT. BAT of outdoor acclimated hamsters showed a significantly higher metabolism in comparison to 23 degrees C acclimated hamsters (81.1 versus 30.4 mlO2h-1). Furthermore, this calculation revealed that 28% (23 degrees C acclimated hamsters) and 61% (outdoors acclimated hamsters) of total NST were located in BAT of Phodopus sungorus.