Diagnostic Clinical Pathology of Tortoises

Vet Clin North Am Exot Anim Pract. 2022 Sep;25(3):755-783. doi: 10.1016/j.cvex.2022.05.007.


Clinicopathologic evaluation of terrestrial tortoises is useful for health assessment and monitoring. There are specific considerations when evaluating data from these species, including sex, age, time of year/season, reproductive status, diet, captive versus wild, geographic location, methodology, and anticoagulant. The authors describe sample collection, hematology, biochemistry, and urinalysis features of terrestrial tortoises and discuss clinical relevance.

Keywords: Biochemistry; Clinical pathology; Hematology; Reptile; Tortoise; Urinalysis.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Anticoagulants
  • Hematology*
  • Pathology, Clinical*
  • Reproduction
  • Turtles*


  • Anticoagulants