Venous thromboembolism (VTE) as well as other embolic events including amniotic fluid embolism (AFE) remain a leading cause of maternal death in the United States and worldwide. The pregnant patient is at a higher risk of developing VTE including pulmonary embolism. In contrast, AFE is a rare, but catastrophic event that remains incompletely understood. Here the authors review the cause of VTE in pregnancy and look at contemporary and evidence-based practices for the evaluation, diagnosis, and management in pregnancy. Then the cause and diagnostic difficulty of AFE as well as what is known regarding the pathogenesis are reviewed.
Keywords: Amniotic fluid embolism; Anticoagulation; Deep vein thrombosis; Diagnostic imaging; Disseminated intravascular coagulopathy; Pregnancy; Pulmonary embolism; Venous thromboembolism.
Published by Elsevier Inc.