Computerized handwriting evaluation and statistical reports for children in the age of primary school

Sci Rep. 2022 Sep 19;12(1):15675. doi: 10.1038/s41598-022-19913-y.


This study proposed a novel computational method for evaluating logographic handwriting. It can precisely evaluate both the handwriting product and the process. The measures included handwriting performance as well as the temporospatial, kinematics, and kinetics features. For examining the psychometrics of this comprehensive evaluation system, typical development children aged 6 to 9 years old (grade 1 to grade 3) (n = 641) were involved in the study of factor analysis. From twelve measuring variables, the exploratory factor analysis extracted five factors (handwriting performance, motor control, speed and automation, halt and exertion, and "in air" events). The test reliability was confirmed by further recruitment of typically developing children (n = 242). The internal consistency mostly demonstrated good to excellent results for every measure. This study further recruited children with handwriting difficulties (n = 33) for testing the discriminative validity of the evaluation system. A series of two-way ANOVA tests was conducted to test the significance of the main effects of the groups (typical development and handwriting deficit) and grades (1, 2, and 3) and their interaction effects on the handwriting measures. All the measures showed significant differences between the two groups, indicating the discriminative validity for identifying handwriting deficits. Seven of twelve measures showed significant interaction effects, indicating the different trends across the grades between the two groups. Typically-developing children demonstrated ongoing progress from grade 1 to grade 3, suggesting a developmental trend during their early school age. Implications for motor development and clinical evaluation are discussed herein in relation to the five dimensions.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Biomechanical Phenomena
  • Child
  • Handwriting*
  • Humans
  • Reproducibility of Results
  • Schools*