The treatment of choice for Type II or non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus is a behavioral program for the management of weight. However, compliance with this lifelong dietary regimen is often poor. In the current investigation male and female adults with diagnosed Type II diabetes were randomly assigned to either a behavior modification, a cognitive modification, a cognitive-behavior modification, or a control group. Patients were evaluated in terms of weight, percentage of body fat, and glycosylated hemoglobin measures. Men lost significantly more weight than women and subjects in the behavior modification group lost more weight and demonstrated greater decreases in diabetes control than subjects in the cognitive-behavior modification, cognitive, and control groups. A significant interaction indicated that diabetic men may benefit more from behavioral weight reduction programs than diabetic women. Several explanations for these findings are considered.