Purpose: To investigate the changes in the microvascular structure of the retina and optic disk by comparing the optical coherence tomography angiography findings in preeclamptic patients with those in healthy pregnant women and healthy nonpregnant women and also to evaluate the preeclamptic patients after delivery by showing whether the changes are permanent or not.
Methods: Fifty preeclamptic, 50 healthy pregnant, and 50 healthy nonpregnant women enrolled in three groups (preeclamptic pregnant women group, healthy pregnant women group, and nonpregnant women group; respectively). Patients in the preeclamptic pregnant women group were evaluated at three different time points including up to 3 hours before delivery (Group 1), 2, or 3 days after delivery (Group 2), and 6 weeks after delivery (Group 3), and compared with each other. All patients underwent a comprehensive ophthalmologic examination including optical coherence tomography angiography.
Results: Choriocapillaris blood flow area, deep foveal density, deep temporal density, deep nasal density, and radial peripapillary capillary inside disk density values were significantly lower in the preeclamptic pregnant women group than in the healthy pregnant women group. Deep foveal density and deep nasal density values were significantly higher in Group 3 than in Group 1 and 2, and deep temporal density was significantly higher in Group 3 than in Group 1.
Conclusion: Optical coherence tomography angiography diagnosed decreased deep retinal capillary density values in the macula of patients with preeclampsia, but these results improved after delivery.