Impact of extracardiac vascular disease on outcomes of 1.4 million patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention

Catheter Cardiovasc Interv. 2022 Nov;100(5):737-746. doi: 10.1002/ccd.30404. Epub 2022 Sep 21.


Objectives: Extracardiac vascular disease (ECVD) is increasingly recognized as a cardiovascular risk factor, but its association with outcomes after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) has not been well characterized.

Methods: Using the National Inpatient Sample database, all patients undergoing PCI between October 2015 and December 2018 were stratified by the presence and organ-specific extent of extracardiac vascular comorbidity (cerebrovascular disease (CeVD), renovascular, aortic and peripheral arterial disease (PAD)). Primary outcome was all-cause mortality and secondary outcomes were (a) major adverse cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events (MACCE), (b) acute ischemic stroke and (c) major bleeding. Multivariable logistic regression was used to determine the adjusted odds ratios (aOR) and 95% confidence interval (95% CI).

Results: Of a total of 1,403,505 patients undergoing PCI during the study period, 199,470 (14.2%) had ECVD. Patients with ECVD were older (median of 72 years vs. 70 years, p < 0.001) and had higher comorbidity burden that their counterparts. All cause-mortality was 22% higher in patients with any ECVD compared to those without ECVD. PAD patients had the highest odds of all-cause mortality (aOR 1.48, 95% CI 1.40-1.56), followed by those with CeVD (aOR 1.15, 95% CI 1.10-1.19). Patients with extracardiac disease had increased odds of MACCE, ischemic stroke and bleeding, irrespective of the nature or extent (p < 0.05), compared to patients without ECVD.

Conclusion: ECVD is associated with worse outcomes in patients undergoing PCI including significantly higher rates of death and stroke. These data should inform our shared decision-making process with our patients.

Keywords: PAD; PCI; cerebrovascular; mortality; renovascular; stroke.

MeSH terms

  • Cerebrovascular Disorders* / etiology
  • Coronary Artery Disease* / complications
  • Coronary Artery Disease* / diagnostic imaging
  • Coronary Artery Disease* / therapy
  • Humans
  • Ischemic Stroke*
  • Percutaneous Coronary Intervention* / adverse effects
  • Peripheral Vascular Diseases* / complications
  • Risk Factors
  • Treatment Outcome