Previous studies have shown beneficial effects of coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) supplementation on blood pressure (BP). However, the optimal intake of CoQ10 for BP regulation in patients with cardiometabolic disorders is unknown, and its effect on circulating CoQ10 is also unclear. We aimed to assess the dose-response relation between CoQ10 and BP, and quantify the effect of CoQ10 supplementation on the concentration of circulating CoQ10 by synthesizing available evidence from randomized controlled trials (RCTs). A comprehensive literature search was performed in 3 databases (PubMed/MEDLINE, Embase, and Cochrane Library) to 21 March, 2022. A novel 1-stage restricted cubic spline regression model was used to evaluate the nonlinear dose-response relation between CoQ10 and BP. Twenty-six studies comprising 1831 subjects were included in our meta-analysis. CoQ10 supplementation significantly reduced systolic blood pressure (SBP) (-4.77 mmHg, 95% CI: -6.57, -2.97) in patients with cardiometabolic diseases; this reduction was accompanied by a 1.62 (95% CI: 1.26, 1.97) μg/mL elevation of circulating CoQ10 compared with the control group. Subgroup analyses revealed that the effects of reducing SBP were more pronounced in patients with diabetes and dyslipidemia and in studies with longer durations (>12 wk). Importantly, a U-shaped dose-response relation was observed between CoQ10 supplementation and SBP level, with an approximate dose of 100-200 mg/d largely reducing SBP (χ2 = 10.84, Pnonlinearity = 0.004). The quality of evidence was rated as moderate, low, and very low for SBP, diastolic blood pressure (DBP), and circulating CoQ10 according to the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation approach (GRADE), respectively. The current finding demonstrated that the clinically beneficial effects of CoQ10 supplementation may be attributed to the reduction in SBP, and 100-200 mg/d of CoQ10 supplementation may achieve the greatest benefit on SBP in patients with cardiometabolic diseases. This study was registered on PROSPERO as CRD42021252933.
Keywords: CoQ10 supplementation; GRADE; blood pressure; cardiometabolic disorders; dose-response meta-analysis.
© The Author(s) 2022. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the American Society for Nutrition.