Foldable batteries: from materials to devices

Nanoscale Adv. 2022 Feb 3;4(6):1494-1516. doi: 10.1039/d1na00892g. eCollection 2022 Mar 15.


Wearable electronics is a growing field that has important applications in advanced human-integrated systems with high performance and mechanical deformability, especially foldable characteristics. Although foldable electronics such as rollable TVs (LG signature OLED R) or foldable smartphones (Samsung Galaxy Z fold/flip series) have been successfully established in the market, these devices are still powered by rigid and stiff batteries. Therefore, to realize fully wearable devices, it is necessary to develop state-of-the-art foldable batteries with high performance and safety in dynamic deformation states. In this review, we cover the recent progress in developing materials and system designs for foldable batteries. The Materials section is divided into three sections aimed at helping researchers choose suitable materials for their systems. Several foldable battery systems are discussed and the combination of innovative materials and system design that yields successful devices is considered. Furthermore, the basic analysis process of electrochemical and mechanical properties is provided as a guide for researchers interested in the evaluation of foldable battery systems. The current challenges facing the practical application of foldable batteries are briefly discussed. This review will help researchers to understand various aspects (from material preparation to battery configuration) of foldable batteries and provide a brief guideline for evaluating the performance of these batteries.

Publication types

  • Review