Fatal Lodderomyces elongisporus Fungemia in a Premature, Extremely Low-Birth-Weight Neonate

J Fungi (Basel). 2022 Aug 26;8(9):906. doi: 10.3390/jof8090906.

Abstract

Many rare yeasts are emerging as pathogens, causing invasive infections in susceptible hosts that are associated with poor clinical outcome. Here, we describe the first and fatal case of Lodderomyces elongisporus fungemia in a premature, extremely low-birth-weight neonate after spontaneous vaginal delivery. The bloodstream isolate was identified as C. parapsilosis by the VITEK 2 yeast identification system and as L. elongisporus by PCR-sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of ribosomal DNA. Antifungal susceptibility testing data for the isolate, performed by the broth microdilution-based MICRONAUT-AM assay, showed susceptibility to all nine antifungal drugs tested. Despite the initiation of treatment with liposomal amphotericin B, the patient died on the same day that the blood culture yielded yeast growth. This is the first report of L. elongisporus bloodstream infection in a neonate as the previous nine cases reported in the literature occurred in adult patients. The crude mortality rate for invasive L. elongisporus infection is 50%, as only 5 of 10 patients survived.

Keywords: Candida parapsilosis complex; Lodderomyces elongisporus; extremely low-birth-weight neonate; fungemia; neonatal intensive care unit (NICU).

Publication types

  • Case Reports

Grants and funding

No specific grant was received for this study from any funding agency in the public, commercial or not-for-profit organization.