Case: A 66-year-old man presented with new left hip pain after total hip arthroplasty 21 years earlier. Computed tomography imaging revealed massive osteolysis involving the ileum behind the well-fixed acetabular component. The patient was indicated for head and liner exchange with grafting of the osteolytic lesion. Surgery was complicated by cardiopulmonary arrest after injection of a bone graft substitute into the lesion. Despite resuscitation attempts, the patient died.
Conclusion: Embolism is a rare complication of bone graft substitute injection for pelvic osteolysis. This material can extravasate from bone and deposit in the pulmonary and cerebral microcirculation.
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