Peptide transporter 2 (PepT2) in mammals plays essential roles in the reabsorption and conservation of peptide-bound amino acids in the kidney and in maintaining neuropeptide homeostasis in the brain. It is also of significant medical and pharmacological significance in the absorption and disposing of peptide-like drugs, including angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, β-lactam antibiotics and antiviral prodrugs. Understanding the structure, function and regulation of PepT2 is of emerging interest in nutrition, medical and pharmacological research. In this review, we provide a comprehensive overview of the structure, substrate preferences and localization of PepT2 in mammals. As PepT2 is expressed in various organs, its function in the liver, kidney, brain, heart, lung and mammary gland has also been addressed. Finally, the regulatory factors that affect the expression and function of PepT2, such as transcriptional activation and posttranslational modification, are also discussed.
Keywords: PepT2; membrane transporter; peptide; proton-coupled oligopeptide transporter.