Understanding Acquired Brain Injury: A Review

Biomedicines. 2022 Sep 2;10(9):2167. doi: 10.3390/biomedicines10092167.


Any type of brain injury that transpires post-birth is referred to as Acquired Brain Injury (ABI). In general, ABI does not result from congenital disorders, degenerative diseases, or by brain trauma at birth. Although the human brain is protected from the external world by layers of tissues and bone, floating in nutrient-rich cerebrospinal fluid (CSF); it remains susceptible to harm and impairment. Brain damage resulting from ABI leads to changes in the normal neuronal tissue activity and/or structure in one or multiple areas of the brain, which can often affect normal brain functions. Impairment sustained from an ABI can last anywhere from days to a lifetime depending on the severity of the injury; however, many patients face trouble integrating themselves back into the community due to possible psychological and physiological outcomes. In this review, we discuss ABI pathologies, their types, and cellular mechanisms and summarize the therapeutic approaches for a better understanding of the subject and to create awareness among the public.

Keywords: Acquired Brain Injury (ABI); brain functions; brain impairment; cellular mechanisms; pathologies; post-birth; therapeutic approach.

Publication types

  • Review