An increasing body of evidence in the literature is reporting the feasibility of using medical ozone as a possible alternative and adjuvant treatment for COVID-19 patients, significantly reducing hospitalization time, pro-inflammatory indicators, and coagulation markers and improving blood oxygenation parameters. In addition to the well-described ability of medical ozone in counteracting oxidative stress through the upregulation of the main anti-oxidant and scavenging enzymes, oxygen-ozone (O2-O3) therapy has also proved effective in reducing chronic inflammation and the occurrence of immune thrombosis, two key players involved in COVID-19 exacerbation and severity. As chronic inflammation and oxidative stress are also reported to be among the main drivers of the long sequelae of SARS-CoV2 infection, a rising number of studies is investigating the potential of O2-O3 therapy to reduce and/or prevent the wide range of post-COVID (or PASC)-related disorders. This narrative review aims to describe the molecular mechanisms through which medical ozone acts, to summarize the clinical evidence on the use of O2-O3 therapy as an alternative and adjuvant COVID-19 treatment, and to discuss the emerging potential of this approach in the context of PASC symptoms, thus offering new insights into effective and safe nonantiviral therapies for the fighting of this devastating pandemic.
Keywords: COVID-19; PASC; anti-inflammatory; anti-oxidant; medical therapy; ozone therapy; post-COVID; review.