Act Early and at the Right Location: SARS-CoV-2 T Cell Kinetics and Tissue Localization

Int J Mol Sci. 2022 Sep 14;23(18):10679. doi: 10.3390/ijms231810679.


The emergence of new SARS-CoV-2 lineages able to escape antibodies elicited by infection or vaccination based on the Spike protein of the Wuhan isolates has reduced the ability of Spike-specific antibodies to protect previously infected or vaccinated individuals from infection. Therefore, the role played by T cells in the containment of viral replication and spread after infection has taken a more central stage. In this brief review, we will discuss the role played by T cells in the protection from COVID-19, with a particular emphasis on the kinetics of the T cell response and its localization at the site of primary infection.

Keywords: adaptive immunity against SARS-CoV-2; tissue-resident T cells.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Antibodies, Neutralizing
  • Antibodies, Viral
  • COVID-19*
  • Humans
  • Kinetics
  • SARS-CoV-2*
  • Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus
  • T-Lymphocytes
  • Vaccination


  • Antibodies, Neutralizing
  • Antibodies, Viral
  • Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus
  • spike protein, SARS-CoV-2