Gut Dysbiosis and Fecal Microbiota Transplantation in Autoimmune Diseases

Int J Mol Sci. 2022 Sep 14;23(18):10729. doi: 10.3390/ijms231810729.


Gut microbiota dysbiosis has recently been reported in a number of clinical states, including neurological, psychiatric, cardiovascular, metabolic and autoimmune disorders. Yet, it is not completely understood how colonizing microorganisms are implicated in their pathophysiology and molecular pathways. There are a number of suggested mechanisms of how gut microbiota dysbiosis triggers or sustains extraintestinal diseases; however, none of these have been widely accepted as part of the disease pathogenesis. Recent studies have proposed that gut microbiota and its metabolites could play a pivotal role in the modulation of immune system responses and the development of autoimmunity in diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, multiple sclerosis or type 1 diabetes. Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is a valuable tool for uncovering the role of gut microbiota in the pathological processes. This review aims to summarize the current knowledge about gut microbiota dysbiosis and the potential of FMT in studying the pathogeneses and therapies of autoimmune diseases. Herein, we discuss the extraintestinal autoimmune pathologies with at least one published or ongoing FMT study in human or animal models.

Keywords: Graves’ disease; Hashimoto’s disease; Sjögren’s syndrome; celiac disease; dysbiosis; fecal microbiota transplantation; multiple sclerosis; rheumatoid arthritis; systemic lupus erythematosus; type 1 diabetes.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Autoimmune Diseases* / therapy
  • Autoimmunity
  • Dysbiosis / therapy
  • Fecal Microbiota Transplantation
  • Gastrointestinal Microbiome*
  • Humans