Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor-α ( PPARα) Expression in a Clinical Population of Pakistani Patients with Type 2 Diabetes and Dyslipidemia

Int J Mol Sci. 2022 Sep 16;23(18):10847. doi: 10.3390/ijms231810847.


Poor glycemic control and dyslipidemia are hallmarks of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), which predispose to cardiovascular diseases. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α (PPARα) has been associated with atherosclerosis, but its role in T2DM is less clear. Previously, we studied PPARα expression levels in diabetics with and without dyslipidemia (DD). In this study we described the association with fasting blood glucose, HbA1c levels and lipid levels of the study population. Patient demography and biochemical data were collected from hospitals in Islamabad, Pakistan, and RT-PCR data of PPARα expression were retrieved from our previous study from the same cohort. We performed t-tests and regression analysis to evaluate the relationships between PPARα expression and demographic and clinical variables. As expected, body mass index and HbA1c were elevated in T2DM and DD patients compared to controls. Blood lipids (total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL and HDL) were significantly higher in the DD group compared to the other two groups. In the T2DM and DD groups, the PPARα expression was not associated with any of the physical and biochemical parameters measured in this study. Expression of the PPARα gene was independent of blood lipids and glycemic control in this study. Further research is necessary to better understand the biological parameters of PPARα expression.

Keywords: PPARα gene; diabetic dyslipidemia; serum lipid profile; type 2 diabetes.

MeSH terms

  • Blood Glucose / metabolism
  • Cholesterol
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2* / complications
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2* / genetics
  • Dyslipidemias* / genetics
  • Glycated Hemoglobin / metabolism
  • Humans
  • Lipids
  • PPAR alpha / genetics
  • PPAR alpha / metabolism
  • Pakistan
  • Triglycerides


  • Blood Glucose
  • Glycated Hemoglobin A
  • Lipids
  • PPAR alpha
  • Triglycerides
  • Cholesterol