Embryo implantation requires adequate dialogue between a good quality embryo and a receptive endometrium. This implantation is still considered as the black box of reproductive medicine. Endometriosis is a highly prevalent chronic inflammatory disease, concerning about 10% of women of reproductive age and is one of the major causes of female infertility. The mechanisms involved in endometriosis-related infertility, an event not yet completely understood, are multifactorial and include anatomical changes, reduction in ovarian reserve, endocrine abnormalities, genetic profile, immunity markers, inflammatory mediators, or altered endometrial receptivity. In this article, we will focus on the impact of endometriosis on embryo quality and on endometrial receptivity. Results: Poor oocyte and embryo quality seem to promote a lower pregnancy rate, more than the endometrium itself in women with endometriosis. Other studies report the contrary. In addition, hormonal imbalance observed in the endometrium could also alter the embryo implantation. Conclusions: Controversial results in the literature add difficulties to the understanding of the mechanisms that lead to embryo implantation disorders. Furthermore, either oocyte/embryo impairment, altered endometrium, or both may cause impaired implantation. New prospective, randomized, and controlled studies are necessary to determine the origin of the defects that make conception more difficult in the case of endometriosis and adenomyosis.
Keywords: adenomyosis; endometriosis; implantation disorders; infertility.