Background: several blood-based biomarkers have been proposed for predicting vancomycin-associated kidney injury (VIKI). However, no systematic analysis has compared their prognostic value.
Objective: this systematic review and meta-analysis was designed to investigate the role of blood biomarkers and metabolomic profiling as diagnostic and prognostic predictors in pre-clinical studies of VIKI.
Methods: a systematic search of PubMed was conducted for relevant articles from January 2000 to May 2022. Animal studies that administered vancomycin and studied VIKI were eligible for inclusion. Clinical studies, reviews, and non-English literature were excluded. The primary outcome was to investigate the relationship between the extent of VIKI as measured by blood biomarkers and metabolomic profiling. Risk of bias was assessed with the CAMARADES checklist the SYRCLE's risk of bias tool. Standard meta-analysis methods (random-effects models) were used.
Results: there were four studies for the same species, dosage, duration of vancomycin administration and measurement only for serum creatine and blood urea nitrogen in rats. A statistically significant increase was observed between serum creatinine in the vancomycin group compared to controls (pooled p = 0.037; Standardized Mean Difference: 2.93; 95% CI: 0.17 to 5.69; I2 = 92.11%). Serum BUN levels were not significantly different between control and vancomycin groups (pooled p = 0.11; SMD: 3.05; 95% CI: 0.69 to 6.8; I2 = 94.84%). We did not identify experimental studies using metabolomic analyses in animals with VIKI.
Conclusions: a total of four studies in rodents only described outcomes of kidney injury as defined by blood biomarkers. Blood biomarkers represented included serum creatinine and BUN. Novel blood biomarkers have not been explored.
Keywords: acute kidney injury; animal models; blood biomarkers; translational research; vancomycin.