Effects of Vitamin D Receptor Genotype on Lipid Profiles and Retinopathy Risk in Type 2 Diabetes Patients: A Pilot Study

J Pers Med. 2022 Sep 11;12(9):1488. doi: 10.3390/jpm12091488.


Genetic polymorphisms affect lipid profiles and are associated with disease complications. Genetic variants in the vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene are associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). In this study, we investigated the effects of VDR genotypes on the lipid profile and disease complications of T2DM patients in a Jordanian population. Ninety T2DM patients were genotyped for four major functional VDR genetic variants, rs2228570 C > T (FokI), rs7975232 A > C (ApaI), rs731236 T > C (TaqI), and rs1544410 C > T (BsmI), using the polymerase chain reaction−restriction fragment length polymorphism method. Lipid profiles and diabetes complications were analyzed and correlated with VDR genotypes. We found that the VDR rs7975232 and rs1544410 alleles were significantly (p = 0.008−0.04) associated with high-density lipoprotein (HDL) levels and retinopathy among patients. Carriers of the rs7975232 A/A genotype exhibited higher levels (49.68 ± 15.86 mg/dL) of HDL than patients with the A/C (44.73 ± 13.38 mg/dL) and C/C (37.93 ± 9.22 mg/dL) genotypes. Moreover, carriers of the rs1544410 T/T genotype had higher levels of HDL (54.31 ± 16.45 mg/dL) than patients with the C/T (43.57 ± 13.24 mg/dL) and C/C (43.98 ± 13.17 mg/dL) genotypes. T2DM patients who carry the rs7975232 C/C genotype were at higher risk (odds ratio [OR] = 7.88) of developing retinopathy compared with carriers of the rs7975232 C/A and A/A genotypes. In addition, T2DM patients with the rs1544410 C/C genotype had a higher risk (OR = 4.21) of developing retinopathy than patients with the rs1544410 C/T and T/T genotypes. Therefore, we concluded that the VDR rs7975232 and rs1544410 alleles were associated with HDL levels and retinopathy and can be considered as potential genetic biomarkers for the lipid profile and retinopathy complication among T2DM patients in a Jordanian population of Arabic origin. Further studies with larger sample sizes are needed to confirm our findings.

Keywords: HDL; Jordanians; VDR gene; diabetes; retinopathy.